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This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
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Castellano - Français Imperialism
Editor: Róbinson Rojas Sandford
  U.S. Hegemony
From The New York Times - October 2010
The Iraq Documents
The archive is the second cache obtained by the independent organization WikiLeaks and made available to several news organizations. The Iraq documents shed new light on the war.
WikiLeaks Founder on the Run, Chased by Turmoil
BY John F. Burns and Ravi Somaiya
Julian Assange, the founder of WikiLeaks, faces a variety of challenges after his most brazen disclosure yet: posting 391,832 secret Pentagon documents on the Iraq war. Twelve weeks earlier, he had posted some 77,000 documents on the Afghan conflict.
The Iraq War Logs

At 5pm EST Friday 22nd October 2010 WikiLeaks released the largest classified military leak in history. The 391,832 reports ('The Iraq War Logs'), document the war and occupation in Iraq, from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2009 (except for the months of May 2004 and March 2009) as told by soldiers in the United States Army. Each is a 'SIGACT' or Significant Action in the war. They detail events as seen and heard by the US military troops on the ground in Iraq and are the first real glimpse into the secret history of the war that the United States government has been privy to throughout.
The reports detail 109,032 deaths in Iraq, comprised of 66,081 'civilians'; 23,984 'enemy' (those labeled as insurgents); 15,196 'host nation' (Iraqi government forces) and 3,771 'friendly' (coalition forces). The majority of the deaths (66,000, over 60%) of these are civilian deaths.That is 31 civilians dying every day during the six year period. For comparison, the 'Afghan War Diaries', previously released by WikiLeaks, covering the same period, detail the deaths of some 20,000 people. Iraq during the same period, was five times as lethal with equivallent population size.

From the US Embassy in Belgium
United States policy toward Economic Issues: a Dossier
This web site is a product of the U.S. Embassy in Brussels. It provides timely and authoritative information on the foreign policy of the United States.  Its backbone is a database containing thousands of statements on foreign policy issues by US public officials.
Via a set of dossiers we try to highlight the priorities of the US Government with regard to specific policy issues.  We provide statements by US public officials, but also reports, hearings, and journal articles.
Our powerful search engine enables you to search through thousands of articles from the federal government issued by the State Department and other U.S. Government sources.

From - 14 February 2010
What Do Empires Do?
By Michael Parenti
When I wrote my book Against Empire in 1995, as might be expected, some of my U.S. compatriots thought it was wrong of me to call the United States an empire. It was widely believed that U.S. rulers did not pursue empire; they intervened abroad only out of self-defense or for humanitarian rescue operations or to overthrow tyranny, fight terrorism, and propagate democracy.
But by the year 2000, everyone started talking about the United States as an empire and writing books with titles like Sorrows of Empire, Follies of Empire, Twilight of Empire, or Empire of Illusions--- all referring to the United States when they spoke of empire.

From - 7 October 2007
Climate Change And Entire Landscapes On The Move
By Stephen Leahy - Inter Press Service
BROOKLIN, Canada - The hot breath of global warming has now touched some of the coldest northern regions of world, turning the frozen landscape into mush as temperatures soar 15 degrees C. above normal.
Entire hillsides, sometimes more than a kilometre long, simply let go and slid like a vast green carpet into valleys and rivers on Melville Island in Canada’s northwest Arctic region of Nunavut this summer, says Scott Lamoureux of Queens University in Canada and leader of one the of International Polar Year projects.

From - 5 October 2007
Iraq Body Count: “A Very Misleading Exercise”
By Media Lens
The mainstream media are continuing to use figures provided by the website Iraq Body Count (IBC) to sell the public a number for total post-invasion deaths of Iraqis that is perhaps 5-10% of the true death toll

From - 29 September 2007
Defending The Cuban Revolution: With Love Or Venom?
By James Petras
Defending the Cuban revolution demands unconditional defense against imperialism and proposals to rectify its problems. These are acts of love. Polemical invective and personal attacks against life-long defenders of the revolution and revolutionary movements will further isolate Cuba and opportunists like Gonzalez Casanova from reality and the coming social transformations in Latin America and social changes in Cuba

Cuba: Continuing Revolution and Contemporary Contradictions
James Petras and Robin Eastman-Abaya - July 2007
The Cuban revolution with its socialist economy has demonstrated tremendous resilience in the face of enormous political obstacles and challenges. It successfully defied a US orchestrated invasion, naval blockade, hundreds of terrorists’ attacks and half-century boycott.(1) Cuba was able to withstand the fallout from the collapse of the USSR, the Eastern European collectivist regimes, China and Indo-China’s transit to capitalism and to construct a new development model.
As many scholars and political leaders – including adversaries – have noted, Cuba has developed a very advanced and functioning social welfare program: free, universal, quality health coverage and free education from kindergarten through advanced university education.(2) In foreign, as well as domestic, policy Cuba has successfully developed economic and diplomatic relations with the entire globe, despite US boycotts and pressures. (3) In questions of national and personal security, Cuba is a world leader. Crime rates are low and violent offenses are rare. Terrorist threats and acts, (most emanating from the US and its Cuban exile proxies), have declined and are less a danger to the Cuban population than to the US or Europe.
It is precisely the successes of the Cuban Revolution, its ability to withstand external threats, which would have brought down most governments, that now has created a series of major challenges, which require urgent attention if the revolution, as we know it, is to advance in the 21st century. These challenges are a result of past external constraints as well as internal political developments. Some problems were inevitable consequences of emergency measures but are now pressing for immediate and radical solutions.

More articles from  here

Signs of a 'new Middle East'
People's resistance hands U.S., Israel a stunning defeat in Lebanon

By Richard Becker, Western regional coordinator of the A.N.S.W.E.R. Coalition ( 22 August 2006
Ten days into Israel’s massive assault on Lebanon, when hundreds of Lebanese civilians had already been killed and hundreds of thousands were refugees, U.S. secretary of state Condoleezza Rice blithely dismissed all the death and destruction as "the birth pangs of a new Middle East."
The outcome of the struggle may indeed be a transformed region, but not along the lines that Rice and her fellow warmakers in Washington had in mind. Rice’s now infamous July 22 remark was another way of saying "no" to international calls for a ceasefire in the conflict. It came in response to worldwide outrage over the wanton Israeli destruction of Lebanon, supposedly unleashed because two Israeli soldiers had been captured by Hezbollah’s military wing in a clash along the Israel-Lebanon border.
From the BBC London - 7 August 2006
US state terrorism in action:
US troops 'took turns' to rape Iraqi
The case is the latest in a series of scandals for the US army.
A US military hearing has examined testimony of how three soldiers took it in turns to try to rape an Iraqi girl aged 14 in Mahmudiya in March. The girl and three family members were allegedly killed by four US soldiers. Graphic details of the attack at the family's home came in a sworn statement by one of the accused, James P. Barker.
State terrorism Israeli in action:
Hizbullah's attacks stem from Israeli incursions into Lebanon
By Anders Strindberg
01/08/06 Christian Science Monitor
NEW YORK - As pundits and policymakers scramble to explain events in Lebanon, their conclusions are virtually unanimous: Hizbullah created this crisis. Israel is defending itself. The underlying problem is Arab extremism. Sadly, this is pure analytical nonsense. Hizbullah's capture of two Israeli soldiers on July 12 was a direct result of Israel's silent but unrelenting aggression against Lebanon, which in turn is part of a six-decades long Arab-Israeli conflict. Since its withdrawal of occupation forces from southern Lebanon in May 2000, Israel has violated the United Nations-monitored "blue line" on an almost daily basis, according to UN reports.
From Progressive Response -31 july 2006
Target: Multilateralism
Multilateralism took several hits this past week.
The most graphic was Israel's rocket attack on a UN monitoring post in Lebanon on July 25. The UN had complained to Hezbollah that guerrillas were launching missile attacks from positions close to the observation posts. But nothing could justify what happened next.
According to a preliminary UN report on the incident, the Israeli military ignored ten phone calls from the UN peacekeepers as they endured twenty Israeli artillery air strikes. “UN sources alleged yesterday that the Israeli military ignored the plea after it was passed up through the chain of command,” according to a report in the British Telegraph. “A laser-guided munition is believed to have then dropped on the UN position, which is painted white and clearly illuminated. The four monitors inside—from Canada, Austria, Finland, and China—were killed.”
25 july 2006
U.S. state terrorism in action:
Lebanon massacre.
Genocide in the name of self-defense.

The U.S. imperialist policy to "reshape" the Middle East utilizing the army of the neo-nazi state of Israel.

From The New York Times - August 19th 2005
Bush's Aid Cuts on Court Issue Roil Latin American Neighbors
By Juan Forero
Three years ago the Bush administration began prodding countries to shield Americans from the fledgling International Criminal Court in The Hague, which was intended to be the first permanent tribunal for prosecuting crimes like genocide.
The United States has since cut aid to some two dozen nations that refused to sign immunity agreements that American officials say are intended to protect American soldiers and policy makers from politically motivated prosecutions.
From The New York Times - August 17th 2005
Biking Toward Nowhere
By Maureen Dowd
How could President Bush be cavorting around on a long vacation with American troops struggling with a spiraling crisis in Iraq? Wasn't he worried that his vacation activities might send a frivolous signal at a time when he had put so many young Americans in harm's way? "I'm determined that life goes on," Mr. Bush said stubbornly.
That wasn't the son, believe it or not. It was the father - 15 years ago...
Samir Amin on:
Imperialism and Globalization

Notes of a talk delivered at the World Social Forum meeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil in January 2001.
Imperialism is not a stage, not even the highest stage, of capitalism: from the beginning, it is inherent in capitalism’s expansion. The imperialist conquest of the planet by the Europeans and their North American children was carried out in two phases and is perhaps entering a third.
The first phase of this devastating enterprise was organized around the conquest of the Americas, in the framework of the mercantilist system of Atlantic Europe at the time. The net result was the destruction of the Indian civilizations and their Hispanicization- Christianization, or simply the total genocide on which the United States was built.
From Human Rights Watch
April 2005

Impunity for Rumsfeld and other state terrorists,
Getting Away with Torture?

Command Responsibility for the U.S. Abuse of Detainees
December 3, 2004
AP and international wire services finally catching up VHeadline .com news story
The Associated Press (AP) and international wire services are finally catching up with a story first revealed by way back on November 21 that the US Central Intelligence Agency knew dissident military officers were planning a coup in 2002 against Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. Yet, despite the evidence and confirmation from the CIA itself, the wire services insist on describing the documents uncovered by New York based lawyer Eva Golinger as "purported U.S. intelligence documents posted on the Internet."
Wire service reports focus on a speech delivered by President Hugo Chavez Frias in which they say he "lashed out" at US officials saying they knew a coup was brewing but failed to tip off Venezuela's government. "The CIA knew that a coup was coming ... the government of George Bush knew."
Presidential election in the Empire ( 2 Nov. 2004)
What's going on, what the left should do
by Elson Boles
Unlike some have argued, the election did not boil down to resurgent US nationalism designed to recoup US decline. Bush did not win because of Iraq, but despite it. The decline of the US, the shrinking of the middle class, and the Republican economic policies behind these developments, were NOT why Bush won. On the contrary, he won largely because certain Americans voted on certain cultural issues: they voted for racism, homophobia, etc. and these as requisite features of "moral integrity."
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and Iraq
A report for Parliament on the British Government's response to the US supply of biological materials to Iraq.
Geoffrey Holland
School of Social Sciences and Cultural Studies
University of Sussex
October 2004

At Least 100,000 Dead in Iraq
U.S. War is a Blood Bath for the Iraqi People
Pledge to Take Action to End the War
In a medical study being published today, scientists have concluded that the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq has resulted in the deaths of at least 100,000 Iraqis, "and may be much higher." It further revealed that most of the 100,000 Iraqis who died were killed in violent deaths, primarily carried out by U.S. forces airstrikes. "Most individuals reportedly killed by coalition forces were women and children," according to the study. The study was designed and conducted by researches at Johns Hopkins University, Columbia University and the Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad (The Lancet, October 29, 2004).
The Center for Public Integrity (2002)
The business of war
Making a Killing: The Business of War
Privatizing Combat, the New World Order
Marketing the New 'Dogs of War'
Greasing the Skids of Corruption
The Curious Bonds of Oil Diplomacy
Conflict Diamonds are Forever
The Adventure Capitalist
The Influence Peddlers
The Field Marshal
Drugs, Diamonds and Deadly Cargoes
The Merchant of Death
Global Research (Canada) : Feature articles on torture and war crimes
Michel Chossudovsky,
Bush appoints a Terrorist as US Ambassador to Iraq
Felicity Arbuthnot, 14 May 2004:
Crimes in Iraq: ?As American as Apple Pie?
Marwa Elnaggar, 14 May 2004:
The Merciless Killing of Nicholas Berg
Orit Shohat:
American army committed war crimes in Falluja on an unprecedented scale
John Stanton:
Torture: United Kingdom, United States and Israel Kings of Pain
Michel Chossudovsky:
Did the US Military Target and kill the Red Cross Delegate on April 8 2003 to undermine the ICRCs activities in Iraq?
William Blum:
God, Country and Torture
Jack Random:
Abu Ghraib: Enough Shame for All
Sara Flounders:
Bertrand Russell Tribunal: Bush Cabal Plotted War on Iraq Years ago
L. Panitch and S. Gindin
Global Capitalism and American Empire
"The American empire is no longer concealed. In March 1999, the cover of the New York Times Magazine displayed a giant clenched fist painted in the stars and stripes of the US flag above the words: ‘What The World Needs Now: For globalization to work, America can’t be afraid to act like the almighty superpower that it is’. Thus was featured Thomas Friedman’s ‘Manifesto for a Fast World’, which urged the United States to embrace its role as enforcer of the capitalist global order: ‘…the hidden hand of the market will never work without a hidden fist.... The hidden fist that keeps the world safe for Silicon Valley’s technologies is called the United States Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.’ "
on U.S. imperialism

05 January, 2010

Wars "R" Us: Making The World Safe For
American Domination

By Emily Spence

Wars are big business, most notably for investors and employees in the aerospace and defense industries. The related purposes, like the ones guiding most corporations, are hardly humanistic. Instead new sources of revenue, cheap resources from conquered lands, and new markets for products and services are the sine qua non

04 January, 2010

What To Watch For In 2010
By Tom Engelhardt & Nick Turse

According to the Chinese calendar, 2010 is the Year of the Tiger. We don't name our years, but if we did, this one might prospectively be called the Year of the Assassin

01 January, 2010

Gangs And The Truth About American Interventions
By Timothy V. Gatto

Many of the young people that are active in these gangs are probably following the example that is presented to them every day. In this case I'm talking about the example that the United States government presents on the worlds stage. At this point one may ask oneself if the behavior of the United States doesn't present the same type of modus operandi that gangs display

18 August, 2009

Top 50 US War Criminals
By David Swanson

These are men and women who helped to launch wars of aggression or who have been complicit in lesser war crimes. These are not the lowest-ranking employees or troops who managed to stray from official criminal policies. These are the makers of those policies

30 July, 2009

Dismantling The Empire
By Chalmers Johnson

Three good reasons to liquidate our empire and ten steps to take to do so

27 July, 2009

Mourn On The Fourth Of July
By John Pilger

From his early political days, Barack Obama has followed in a long tradition among U.S. political leaders of promoting America's right to rule and order the world

20 July, 2009

Systematic Pressures Behind
US Military And Covert Action

By Dr Sagar Sanyal

Dr Sagar Sanyal discusses various domestic US institutions that either reduce democratic accountability of the military and intelligence agencies or that create systematic pressures for their use

02 July, 2009

How To Deal With America's Empire Of Bases
By Chalmers Johnson

The U.S. Empire of Bases -- at $102 billion a year already the world's costliest military enterprise -- just got a good deal more expensive. As a start, on May 27th, we learned that the State Department will build a new "embassy" in Islamabad, Pakistan, which at $736 million will be the second priciest ever constructed, only $4 million less, if cost overruns don't occur, than the Vatican-City-sized one the Bush administration put up in Baghdad

12 March, 2009

Too Many Overseas Bases
By David Vine

In the midst of an economic crisis that’s getting scarier by the day, it’s time to ask whether USA can really afford some 1,000 military bases overseas. For those unfamiliar with the issue, you read that number correctly. One thousand. One thousand U.S. military bases outside the 50 states and Washington, DC, representing the largest collection of bases in world history

For those who still doubt that US big capital is in the process of building a world empire the reading of the three documents below will be very useful. The think tank authoring the   documents was created in 1997, and by now is well entrenched in the White House, particularly the Pentagon. We need to read the documents, analyse them, and discuss ways leading to stop the American Empire offensive for total world domination. US imperialist project for the twenty first century seeks economic enslavement through military terror of every society on planet earth. (Róbinson Rojas - April 2003)

(PNAC) Project for the New American Century (2000):
Rebuilding America's Defenses. Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century

Also, is important to read the Statement of Principles of the above organization, created on June 13, 1997

PNAC: Statement of principles

and, this  article by Thomas Donnelly, principal author of "Rebuilding America's Defenses", to be published on May 5, 1903

There's no place like Iraq

From Counterpunch:
H. Wasserman (2 May 2003):
Bush's Military Defeat. Where is the superpower of Peace?
A. Smith (30 April 2003):
Under Uncle's Sam Thumb
The history of Washington's Occupations

W. Madsen (29 April 2003):
About those Iraqi intelligence documents
Where they planted?

S. Shaefer (23 April 2003):
Duck, Duck, Goose: financing the war. financing the world

The Economist  (26 Apr-2 May 2003):
The Shadow Men
G. Easterbrook (27 Apr. 2003):
American power moves beyond the mere super
N. Ferguson (27 Apr. 2003):
The empire slinks back
T. Shanker/E.Schmitt (20 Apr. 2003):
Pentagon expects long-term access to four key bases in Iraq
R. Fisk (18 Apr. 2003):
For the people on the streets this is not liberation but a new colonial oppression

Iraq's war of liberation from the Americans is about to begin (16 Apr. 2003):
Where are the weapons of mass destruction?
D. Filkin (16 Apr. 2003):
A Baghdad Art Center left in ashes
R. Fisk (13 Apr. 2003):
A civilisation torn to pieces
J. F. Burns (12 Apr. 2003):
"This is not a liberation, this is a humiliation".
Pillagers strip Iraqui museum of its treasure
N. Klein (10 Apr. 2003):
Privatization in disguise
K. Wescott (10 Apr. 2003):
The Americans who will run Iraq
R. Perry (8 Apr. 2003):
Bush's Alderaan
A. Dorfman (4 Apr. 2003):
Christopher Columbus has words from the other side of death for Captain John Whyte
DynCorp Rent-a-Cops May Head to Iraq
By: Pratap Chatterjee
Posted: 04/09/2003
A major military contractor -- already underfire for alleged human rights violations and fraud -- may get a multi-million dollar contract to police post-Saddam Iraq.

L. Drutman and C. Cray (4 Apr. 2003)
Cheney, Halliburton and the spoils of war
P. Nicholson ( 3 Apr. 2003 ):
Umm Qasr aid effort 'a shambles'
P. Escobar ( 27 Mar. 2003 ):
The "Palestinization" of Iraq
(27 Feb. 2003):
What is the US really up against?
S. Goff ( 2003 ):
Military matters
M. Tran ( 26 Mar. 2003 ):
Bush fiddles with economy while Baghdad burns
S. Goff ( 23 Mar. 2003 ):
Supporting the troops
I. Ramonet ( 18 Mar. 2003 ):
Global crisis over Iraq: Poles apart
P. Golub ( 18 Mar. 2003 ):
Global crisis over Iraq: United States: inventing demons
R. Mahajan ( 11 Mar. 2003 ):
UN resolution or not, this war violates international law
Le Monde Diplomatique ( 10 Mar. 2003 ):
The U.S. war on Iraq
P. Anderson ( 8 Mar. 2003 ):
Are we sure we can get away with it this time?
The special treatment of Iraq

M. Neumann ( 10 Mar. 2003 ):
A rebuttal of Perry Anderson
An Unfounded Rush to Cynicism

Fidel Castro ( 7 Mar. 2003 ):
The War on the Dark Corners of the World
E. Schmitt ( 26 Feb. 2003 ):
Turkey seems set to let 60,000 G.I's use bases for war
H. C. K. Liu ( 25 Feb. 2003 ):
Power and the new world order
H. Cotter ( 25 Feb. 2003 ):
Oldest Human History is at Risk
P.J. Buchanan ( 23 Feb. 2003 ):
Wages of Empire
New York Times ( 22 Feb. 2003 ):
Los Angeles Council adopts resolution against Iraq war
E. Boles ( 21 Feb. 2003 ):
Propaganda or Fantasy Island?
The Independent (London) (18 Feb. 2003):
Kurdish leaders enraged by 'undemocratic' American plan to occupy Iraq
(17 Feb. 2003):
A little honesty might help the Government's case against Iraq
M. Renner (14 Feb. 2003):
The New Oil Order
Washington's war on Iraq is the lynchpin to controling Persian Gulf oil

The credibility gap (14 Feb. 2003):
How George Bush's two faces affect real Americans
Ignacio Ramonet ( Feb. 2003):
Before the war
Noam Chomsky (2003):
Confronting the empire
On the anti war movement
US senator R. Byrd (2003):
Reckless Administration May Reap Disastrous Consecuences
CAFOD (2002):
Iraq, sanctions and the war against terrorism
I. Wallerstein (2003):
France is the key
R.W. Baker (1993):
How the US government armed Saddam Hussein with weapons of mass destruction
M. Dobbs (2002):
U.S. Defence Secretary D. Rumsfeld helped Saddam Hussein build up his arsenal of deadly chemical and biological weapons
Le Monde Diplomatique (2002):
Target Baghdad
Westward the course of Empire
Don't go it alone
Twenty years after the massacres at Sabra and Shatila
The Guardian (2002):
Arundhai Roy, Not Again
US intellectuals against the war:
Not In Our Name
C. Barraclough (1993):
A British journalist and the Iraqgate factor
D. Schorr (1991):
Ten days that shook the White House
R. Rojas/S. Saumon (2001):
The horror of the World Trade Center in New York, and other horrors
The Trial of
Henry Kissinger
Wanted for War Crimes:
Henry Kissinger
From Jay's Internet Resources Directory:
American Empire Page (Third World Traveler)
Chronology of American State Terrorism
Let the Bloody Truth Be Told: A Chronology of U.S. Imperialism
The CIA: A Short History
A Timeline of CIA Atrocities
U.S. Must Face the Truth: Know Who is The Terrorist; 25 Classic Quotes on Western Hegemony
The Other September 11th: In Memory of Salvador Allende and Thousands of Other People in Chile: Victims of a U.S. Coup
Dossier on America (PDF)
Our dossier on the world's #1 rogue state (Socialist Worker)
J. Burke (Foreign Policy, May/June 2004)
Think Again: Al Qaeda
The mere mention of al Qaeda conjures images of an efficient terrorist network guided by a powerful criminal mastermind. Yet al Qaeda is more lethal as an ideology than as an organization. “Al Qaedaism” will continue to attract supporters in the years to come—whether Osama bin Laden is around to lead them or not.
D. Barstow et al (19 April 2004)
Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq
They have come from all corners of the world. Former Navy Seal commandos from North Carolina. Gurkas from Nepal. Soldiers from South Africa's old apartheid government. They have come by the thousands, drawn to the dozens of private security companies that have set up shop in Baghdad. The most prized were plucked from the world's elite special forces units. Others may have been recruited from the local SWAT team.
N. Ferguson (18 April 2004)
The Last Iraqi Insurgency
From Ted Kennedy to the cover of Newsweek, we are being warned that Iraq has turned into a quagmire, George W. Bush's Vietnam. Learning from history is well and good, but such talk illustrates the dangers of learning from the wrong history. To understand what is going on in Iraq today, Americans need to go back to 1920, not 1970. And they need to get over the American inhibition about learning from non-American history.
P. Krugman (16 April 2004)
The Vietnam Analogy
Iraq isn't Vietnam. The most important difference is the death toll, which is only a small fraction of the carnage in Indochina. But there are also real parallels, and in some ways Iraq looks worse.
M. Chossudovsky (16 April 2004)
Iraq and the "War on Terrorism"

While the Western media highlights the death and "kidnapping" of paid mercenaries, on contract to Western security firms, there is a deafening silence on the massacre of more than 700 civilians in Fallujah by coalition forces.
A. Gunder Frank (April 2004)
The development of crisis and the crisis of development
...This position of the United States in the world thus rests primarily on the US dollar and on the Pentagon. Moreover, each of these rest on the other: The dollar pays for Pentagon expenses, particularly in the more than 100 US military bases around the world; and the Pentagon help maintain confidence in the dollar. But these two sources of US strength in turn are also its two major Achilles heels of vulnerability as also explained in my PAPER TIGER FIERY DRAGON...
M. Dowd (8 April 2004)
The Iraqi Inversion
Every single thing the administration calculated would happen in Iraq has turned out the opposite. The W.M.D. that supposedly threatened us did not exist. The dangerous dictator was deluded and writing romance novels. The terrorism that would be thwarted has mushroomed in Iraq and is feeding Arab radicalism.
P. Bergen/S. Armstrong (4 April 2004)
15 questions for Dr. Condoleezza Rice
April 8, 2004
Testimony of Condoleezza Rice Before 9/11 Commission 
Transcript of National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice's testimony before the September 11 Commission on Thursday, April 8, as recorded by The New York Times
March 23, 2004
Public Testimony Before 9/11 Commission (pp. 1-41 and pp. 42-83)
Transcript of public testimony from four high-ranking officials from the Bush and Clinton administrations before the independent commission investigating the Sept. 11 attacks, as recorded by Federal News Service. Published by The New York Times
23 March, 2004
Excerpts from "Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror" by Richard A. Clarke
J. Miller (22 March, 2004)
Former Terrorism Official Criticizes White House on 9/11
A. Buncombe (2 April 2004)
"I saw papers that show US knew al-Qa'ida would attack cities with aeroplanes"
The global hegemony of the American Empire (2004)
Fickle, Bitter and Dangeorus
An interview with Chalmes Johnson, by David Ross
M. J. Rivers ( March 2004)
A Wolf in Sheikhs Cloting:

Bush Business Deals with 9 Partners of bin Laden's Banker
From the Washington Post: 9/11 Commission Report
Released July 22, 2004
The independent, bipartisan National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States was established by Congress in 2002 to investigate the events of and circumstances surrounding the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The panel heard from members of the Clinton and Bush administrations, New York City emergency personnel and victims' families. Their final report was released on July 22, 2004. It is available below in PDF format.

Complete 9/11 Commission Report (7.4 MB)
Executive Summary (5.9 MB)
Report by Chapter
Contents, List of Illustrations and Tables, Members, and Staff (233 KB)
Preface (67 KB)
Chapter 1: "We Have Some Planes" (952 KB)
Chapter 2: The Foundation of the New Terrorism (1.44 MB)
Chapter 3: Counterterrorism Evolves (188 KB)
Chapter 4: Responses to al Qaeda's Initial Assaults (185 KB)
Chapter 5: Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland (312 KB)
Chapter 6: From Threat to Threat (209 KB)
Chapter 7: The Attack Looms (949 KB)
Chapter 8: "The System Was Blinking Red" (146 KB)
Chapter 9: Heroism and Horror (2.3 MB)
Chapter 10: Wartime (109 KB)
Chapter 11: Foresight--and Hindsight (133 KB)
Chapter 12: What to do? A Global Strategy (184 KB)
Chapter 13: How to do it? A Different Way of Organizing the Government (158 KB)
Appendices (109 KB)
Notes (669 KB)

© 2004 The Washington Post Company
P. Krugman, 29 June, 2004
Who Lost Iraq?
Let's say the obvious. By making Iraq a playground for right-wing economic theorists, an employment agency for friends and family, and a source of lucrative contracts for corporate donors, the administration did terrorist recruiters a very big favor.  
A Guide to the Memos on Torture
By THE NEW YORK TIMES    --   27 June, 2004

The New York Times, Newsweek, The Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal have disclosed memorandums that show a pattern in which Bush administration lawyers set about devising arguments to avoid constraints against mistreatment and torture of detainees. Administration officials responded by releasing hundreds of pages of previously classified documents related to the development of a policy on detainees.
Noam Chomsky interviewed by J. Paxman (BBC News, 21 May 2004)
The Bush Doctrine and crimes against humanity
"If George Bush were to be judged by the standards of the Nuremberg Tribunals, he'd be hanged. So too, mind you, would every single American President since the end of the second world war, including Jimmy Carter"

June 9, 2004, The Washington Post
Legalizing torture
..."Theirs is the logic of criminal regimes, of dictatorships around the world that sanction torture on grounds of "national security." For decades the U.S. government has waged diplomatic campaigns against such outlaw governments -- from the military juntas in Argentina and Chile to the current autocracies in Islamic countries such as Algeria and Uzbekistan -- that claim torture is justified when used to combat terrorism. The news that serving U.S. officials have officially endorsed principles once advanced by Augusto Pinochet brings shame on American democracy -- even if it is true, as the administration maintains, that its theories have not been put into practice. Even on paper, the administration's reasoning will provide a ready excuse for dictators, especially those allied with the Bush administration, to go on torturing and killing detainees."

read our dossier on US imperial army war crimes
15 June, 2004
Solidarity Petition  for Prof. Song Du-yul
I wonder if any of you could sign the attached petition with the protest against the "judicial" atrocity perpetrated currently against one of Korea's finest social scientists, Prof. Song Du-yul. Prof. Song, currently German citizen and one of the leaders of Korean democracy movement abroad and a well-known activist of Korean reunification, returned to his native South Korea last year after almost 37 years of German exile, only to be arrested and tried for the acts, which are not considered punishable either in Germany/EU or anywhere else - except South Korea (basically, unofficial contacts with North Korea and "benefiting North Korea by the unbalanced criticism of South Korea" - all those things are criminalized by S.Korea's draconian "National Security Law"). All the details on indictment/trial are available on In March 2004, Prof. Song was sentenced to 7 years (!) - with Amnesty Int-l offering immediately a criticism of this atrocious "verdict" . Now, as the final appeal trial is expected in July, Prof. Song's mentor, Prof. Habermas, and many other prominent German intellectuals drafted the "Solidarity Petition", which is going to be submitted soon to South Korea's President and published in South Korean media. As always in such cases, every signature is important, and I ask all of you who agree with the petition's content, to sign it and send to Prof. Song's elder son, Dr. Dschun Song (, who is leading the campaign for Prof. Song's release.
Best greetings,
Vladimir Tikhonov (Pak Noja), Ass. Professor, Korean/East Asian Studies

Text of the Solidarity Petition
Criminal Records:
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte
Ronald Reagan

From A.N.S.W.E.R. - 2 June 2006
The Logic of war crimes in a criminal war
By Mara Verheyden-Hilliard and Brian Becker
When U.S. marines carried out the savage and systematic execution of Iraqi families and small children in Haditha last November, it was initially reported as a “battle” with “insurgent casualties.” A photo of a kneeling Iraqi civilian moments before he was murdered was taken by a Marine using his cell phone camera. Other pictures of the corpses of small children, families lying in pools of blood in their homes, students gunned down in a taxi are all part of the documentary evidence.  
The massacre in Haditha took place one year after a much larger massacre of civilians in Fallujah. Four to six thousand civilians are estimated to have been killed in Fallujah in November 2004, according to credible independent sources reporting from the ground. The truth of Iraq is that there were other massacres almost every week in between the events that have made Haditha and Fallujah famous cities: famous in the way no city wants to become well known throughout the world. The attack on the people of Iraq and ensuing occupation by the United States government has caused the deaths of well over 100,000 Iraqi people (the British medical journal, The Lancet, reported an excess of 100,000 dead eighteen months ago).
Report by Cuba on Resolution 59/11 of the United Nations General Assembly
"The necessity of ending the economic, commercial and financial blockade imposed by the United States of America against Cuba"
The economic, commercial and financial blockade impose by the United States against Cuba is the longest-lasting and cruelest of its kind know to human history and is an essential element in the United States’ hostile and aggressive policies regarding the Cuban people. Its aim, made explicit on 6 April 1960 is the destruction of the Cuban Revolution: (…) through frustration and discouragement based on dissatisfaction and economic difficulties (…) to withhold funds and supplies to Cuba in order to cut real income thereby causing starvation, desperation and the overthrow of the government (...)"
It is equally an essential component of the policy of state terrorism against Cuba which silently, systematically, cumulatively, inhumanly, ruthlessly affects the population with no regard for age, sex, race, religious belief or social position.
En the blockade of Cuba
London - June 2005
United States exports of biological materials to Iraq: compromising the credibility of international law
This paper argues that the United States breached the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) by supplying warfare-related biological materials to Iraq during the 1980s, at a time when that nation was at war with its neighbour, Iran. It is further argued that the United Kingdom has an obligation, not least due to its published policy on the issue, to formally report this breach to the United Nations Security Council.
by Geoffrey Holland
University of Sussex
The U.S. state terrorists have a pile of Weapons of Mass Destruction which can wipe out from the face of the Earth anything between 1 to 3.5 billion human beings. Currently, they are discussing how to make their Weapons of Mass Destruction even more destructive. Read here more about the deadly plans of the imperialists whose policies are menacing the survival of planet Earth.
(Róbinson Rojas)

From The New York Times
A Fierce Debate on Atom Bombs From Cold War
Published: April 3, 2005
For over two decades, a compact, powerful warhead called the W-76 has been the centerpiece of the nation's nuclear arsenal, carried aboard the fleet of nuclear submarines that prowl the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
But in recent months it has become the subject of a fierce debate among experts inside and outside the government over its reliability and its place in the nuclear arsenal.
US Imperial Army secret document (October 2004)

Distribution Restriction: Distribution authorized to the DOD and DOD contractors only to maintain operations security. This determination was made on 1 April 2004. Other requests for this document must be referred to Commander, US Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, ATTN: ATZL-CD (FMI 3-07.22), 1 Reynolds Avenue (Building 111), Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1352.
Destruction Notice: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

We publish this manual utilised by the US terrorist imperial armed forces as a contribution to the worldwide struggle against the US empire led by state terrorists disguised as "democratic" leaders
(Róbinson Rojas, 3 december 2004)

Alain Gresh, Le Monde Diplomatique
( 18 september 2004 )

The business of terror
The war of a thousand years

The Economist (18 March 2004):
The Next American Empire
A.G. Frank (1991):
Third World War:
A political economy of the Gulf War and new world order
M.J. Sullivan (2000):
U.S. Foreign Policy in the Periphery: a 50-year retrospective
The Noam Chomsky Archive
Bad News: Noam Chomsky
The films and writings of John Pilger
Monthly Review
* Africa
* Asia
* Europe
* Globalization
* Labor and
Working-Class Issues

* Media/

* Social/Political Theory
* U.S. Politics/
Cultural Logic
New Left Review
Multinational Monitor
Global Policy Forum
Global Policy Forum's mission is to monitor policy making at the United Nations, promote accountability of global decisions, educate and mobilize for global citizen participation, and advocate on vital issues of international peace and justice.
GPF responds to a globalizing world, where officials, diplomats and corporate leaders take important policy decisions affecting all humanity, with little democratic oversight and accountability. GPF addresses this democratic deficit by monitoring the policy process, informing the public, analyzing the issues, and urging citizen action. GPF focuses on the United Nations – the most inclusive international institution, offering the best hope for a humane and sustainable future.

Róbinson Rojas - 1998
Notes on the making of "regulated capitalism"
Since the late 1930s until the 1950s industrialised countries scholars built a set of disparate concepts which became the unscientific base of a group of ideas loosely grouped in what was known as "development economics" or "modernization theories". All of them conceptualized structures aiming at "pushing" economic development through imposing on third world societies the Western European (liberal) type of state.
By 1977, M. Todaro ("Economics for a Developing World", Longman, 1977) summarized "literature on economic development has been dominated by two major strands of thought:
(1) the stages of economic growth theories of the 1950s and early 1960s; (which the World Bank sponsored since then until today, in the 1990s, R.R.)
(2) the structural-internationalist theories of the late 1960s and early 1970s; (ECLAC) (both theories have been used as a base for formulating various patterns of state intervention in economic growth-development, covering a wide range from "guided capitalism" to "market-friendly capitalism". A third strand, which is not about the role of the state, civil society and the market in the process of economic growth-development but an overall criticism of the global dominance of the capitalist system generating a system of dominance-dependence, is "dependency theory". R.R.)

Róbinson Rojas - 1984
U.S. imperialism in Latin America
Beginning in the mid- nineteenth century, the presence of the United States in the continent has been strongly felt: economically, politically, militarily, socially and culturally. Until the 1930s, nevertheless, the focus of U.S. imperialism's activities was in Mexico, the Caribbean Islands, and Central America. There is no need here to substantiate the exploitation that the continent suffered by the deeds of the most powerful representative of the capitalist mode of production. There is an enormous amount of research on that.
Dealing with contemporary events, Lowenthal states that
..."the Senate's Chile Report shows that the U.S. government engaged for over a decade a massive, systematic, and sustained covert campaign against the Chilean Left... What the U.S. government did in and to Chile during the 1960s and early 1970s was not unique in U.S.-Latin American relations, although it was in some ways anachronistic, a residue of programs set in motion early in the 1960s, at the height of the cold war and of the Alliance for Progress. The covert intervention in Chile was probably unprecedented in scope, style and duration, perhaps because the circumstances were so special: no other socialist revolutionary movement has come close to triumph in South America, much less elected to office. But though the degree of clandestine U.S. intervention against Allende may have been exceptional, particularly as late as the 1970s, none of the specific activities undertaken in Chile was unprecedented. On the contrary, what the U.S. government did in Chile climaxed an extended era of U.S. interventions in Latin America"...

R. A. Pastor - 1993
U.S. foreign policy: the Caribbean Basin
Scholars of inter-American relations have devoted considerable efforts to try to locate the motive for U.S. involvement in the internal affairs of its neighbors. Instead of a single answer, they have amassed a collection of explanations that range from security (keep out rivals, maintain stability), political/ideological (promote democracy, prevent Communism or "alien" ideologies), economic (imperialism, access to investment or trade), to psychological (an impulse to dominate, a fear of insecurity, misperception). A particular explanation might be cogent for a case, but in trying to understand what moves the United States over time, one needs to look for patterns in the history of U.S. relations with the region.
One pattern is the way in which U.S. attention to the region has fluctuated between obsession and disinterest. I have referred to this pattern as a "whirlpool,"...

E. Galeano - 1970
Latin America and the Theory of Imperialism
In "Imperialism, the Highest State of Capitalism", Lenin warned, in refuting Kautsky, that the domination of finance capital not only does not lessen the inequalities and contradictions present in the world economy, but on the contrary accentuates them.
Time has passed and proven him right. The inequalities have become sharper. Historical research has shown that the distance that separated the standard of living in the wealthy countries from that of the poor countries toward the middle of the nineteenth century was much smaller than the distance that separates them today.

U.S. Senate - 1975
Covert Action in Chile 1963-1973
Covert United States involvement in Chile in the decade between 1963 and 1973 was extensive and continuous. The Central Intelligence Agency spent three million dollars in an effort to influence the outcome of the 1964 Chilean presidential elections. Eight million dollars was spent, covertly, in the three years between 1970 and the military coup in September 1973, with over three million dollars expended in fiscal year 1972 alone.
It is not easy to draw a neat box around what was "covert action". The range of clandestine activities undertaken by the CIA includes covert action, clandestine intelligence collection, liaison with local police and intelligence services, and counterintelligence. The distinctions among the types of activities are mirrored in organizational arrangements, both at Headquarters and in the field. Yet it is not always so easy to distinguish the effects of various activities. If the CIA provides financial support to a political party, this is called "covert action"; if the Agency develops a paid "asset" in the party for the purpose of information gathering, the project is "clandestine intelligence collection."
The goal of covert action is political impact. At the same time secret relationships developed for the clandestine collection of intelligence may also have political effects, even though no attempt is made by American officials to manipulate the relationships for short-run political gain. For example, in Chile between 1970 and 1973, CIA and American military attache contacts with the Chilean military for the purpose of gathering intelligence enabled the United States to sustain communication with the group most likely to take power from President Salvador Allende.
What did covert CIA money buy in Chile? It financed activities covering a broad spectrum, from simple propaganda manipulation of the press to large-scale support for Chilean political parties, from public opinion polls to direct attempts to foment a military coup. The scope of "normal" activities of the CIA Station in Santiago included placement of Station-dictated material in the Chilean media through propaganda assets, direct support of publications, and efforts to oppose communist and left-wing influence in student, peasant and labor organizations.

Salvador Allende - 1972
Speech to the UN General Assembly
The Chilean president, Salvador Allende, delivered a dramatic speech to the UN General Assembly, in New York, on 4 December 1972, exposing U.S. transnational corporations, the U.S. government and other centres for international capital, and the Chilean oligarchy, as being engaged in bringing Chile to the brink of civil war by an economic blockade that deprived his Government of the commercial credits and financial help needed to keep it going. Nine months later, 11 September 1973, the Chilean president was assassinated by the army (the coup d'etat was supported by U.S. transnational corporations, the U.S. government and other centres for international capital, and the Chilean oligarchy) and thus the Chilean democratic system was replaced by a brutal right-wing military junta which ruled Chile until 1990, when the Army step aside giving way to a "guarded democracy". ( To examine this period in depth, read Róbinson Rojas, "The Murder of Allende and the end of the Chilean way to socialism", Harper&Row, New York, 1975)
Salvador Allende's speech is a historical document which scholars should read when trying to understand what kind of reality is faced by societies struggling for development in a context where national strategies are brutally constrained by "international forces". These forces being grouped under banners like "defense of the democratic system" during the Cold War, or "market forces"/ "globalization" in the post-Cold War era. In this excerpts of Salvador Allende's speech the "international forces" are very well individualized...there is no difference between those forces in 1972 and now, in the 1990s... (Róbinson Rojas)

The Central Intelligence Agency: its crimes.
L. Haugaard: Textbook Repression: US training manuals declassified

J. Webb (22 march, 2004):
Analysis: Insider's attack rattles Bush
Bush attacked on terrorism record
Profile: Richard Clarke
T. Hayden (January 18, 2004):
Talking Back to the Global Establishment
As the Bush administration struggles with setbacks in its global trade and Iraq agendas, the opposition World Social Forum opened festively this week with 150,000 global justice activists primarily from India and South Asia, marking a successful transition for the grassroots experiment from its original site in Brazil.
Over the last 70 years or so, an international capitalist class have been trying to create a world order ruled by oligopoly capital. U.S. ruling elites have being leading this process. After the collapse of bureaucratic socialism they are implementing a Project for the New American Century which is unleashing, once again, U.S. State Terrorism all over the world. To understand better how the international capitalist class enforces its domination mainly through U.S. State Terrorism, I include here two texts ( Carroll & Carson, and Fraser & Beeston). More reading on this is available at (Dr. Róbinson Rojas)
W. K. Carroll & C. Carson:
Forging a New Hegemony? The Role of Transnational Policy Groups in the Network and Discourses of Global Corporate Governance
I. Fraser and M. Beeston:
The Brotherhood
Part 1: Introduction. The Main Manipulating Groups
Part 2: The Main Protagonists
Part 3: Economic Control. Steps Towards a Global Bank
Part 4: Political Control
Part 5: The World Army
Part 6: Population Control
Part 7: Who We Are & Mind Manipulation
Part 8: Further Examples of Manipulation
Part 9: The Pharmaceutical Racket
Part 10: Seeing Beyond the Veil
From Global Research (Canada)(24 February 2004)

When the ‘Big Lie’ Becomes the Truth, Michel Chossudovsky and Ian Woods,
full text

Intelligence Ploy behind the "Suicide bombings". "Operation Justified Vengeance": a Secret Plan to Destroy the Palestinian Authority, Ellis Shuman,
full text

The Defense Sciences Office's new Metabolic Dominance Program. DARPA Creating a Race of Robo-grunts, Thomas C Greene,
full text

FEMA: The Secret Government, Harry V. Martin
full text

The Hutton Report is a cover-up of the causes of David Kelly's Death: Suicide or Murder? The Dr. David Kelly Affair, Steve Moore
full text

The purpose of the Commissions of Inquiry is Whitewash: Yes, Minister! Uri Avnery
full text

The White House had (at least ) 28 Advanced Intelligence Warnings Prior to 9/11, Compiled by Eric Smith,
full text

Barely seven weeks prior to 9/11, Attorney General John Ashcroft decided not to travel on commercial airlines, due to "a threat assessment by the FBI" ,
full text

Hillary Clinton confirmed in a June 2002 Press Conference that Attorney General John Ashcroft "decided not to fly on commercial flights in the month preceding September 11, 2001,
full text

Paul O'Neill , The Democrats and Regime Rotation in America , Snowshoe Films, Video Interview with Michel Chossudovsky,
full text

John Kerry's Anti-war stance challenged by Vietnam Vet:  An Open Letter to Senator John Kerry on Iraq,  S. Brian Willson
full text>

Argentine President Faces off with IMF and International Financiers, Roger Burbach
full text

Media vs. Reality in Haiti, Anthony Fenton
full text

CIA Intelligence Reports Seven Months Before 9/11: Iraq Posed No Threat To U.S., Containment Was Working, Jason Leopold
full text

Georgia: "The Technique of a Coup d'État", John Laughland
full text

US Casualties in Iraq, David Hackworth
full text

World Bank Oversees Carve-Up of Congo Rainforests
full text

N. Morris (Feb. 16, 2004)
Tutu tells Blair: apologise for 'inmoral' war
D. Morris ( February 3, 2004 )
Faulty intelligence my eye
R. Nader
The Concord Principles for a New Democracy
Control of our social institutions, our government, and our political system is presently in the hands of a self-serving, powerful few, known as an oligarchy, which too often has excluded citizens from the process.
Our political system has degenerated into a government of the power brokers, by the power brokers, and for the power brokers, and is far beyond the control or accountability of the citizens. It is an arrogant and distant caricature of Jeffersonian democracy.
R. Nader
Corporate Socialism
The relentless expansion of corporate control over our political economy has proven nearly immune to daily reporting by the mainstream media. Corporate crime, fraud and abuse have become like the weather; everyone is talking about the storm but no one seems able to do anything about it. This is largely because expected accountability mechanisms -- including boards of directors, outside accounting and law firms, bankers and brokers, state and federal regulatory agencies and legislatures -- are inert or complicit.
N. Chomsky
(Toronto Star, 21 Dec. 2003)

Selective memory and dishonest doctrine
For those who still doubt that US big capital is in the process of building a world empire the reading of this document will be very useful. The think tank authoring this document was created in 1997, and by now is well entrenched in the White House. We need to read this document, analyse it, and discuss ways leading to stop the American Empire offensive for total world domination. US imperialist project for the twenty first century seeks economic enslavement through military terror of every society on planet earth. (Róbinson Rojas - April 2003)

Project for the New American Century (2000):
Rebuilding America's Defenses. Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century

The National Security Archive (2003):
When Reagan and his thugs were pals with Saddam and his thugs
James D. Cockcroft (2003):
Antiwar Movement, Civil Liberties, and Imperialism in United States
R. Rojas (14 Apr. 2003):
US Army use of depleted uranium weapons: another human catastrophe in the making
The environmental disaster created by US military bases
A. Kirby (14 April, 2003):
US rejects Iraq DU clean
W. Clark (Jan. 2003):
The real reasons for the upcoming war witk Iraq
E. Vilwar (March-Apr. 2003):
The Lost World War
J. Pilger ( Jan. 2003):
Blood on their hands
M.J. Sullivan (2000):
U.S. Foreign Policy in the Periphery: a 50-year retrospective
Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed (09/10/03)
'Behind the War on Terror: Western Secret Strategy and the Struggle for Iraq'
A.G. Frank (1991):
Third World War:
A political economy of the Gulf War and new world order
(with a 2003 EPILOGUE)

A.G. Frank (2002):
Paper Tiger, Firey Dragon

Electronic Briefing Books

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Books provide online access to critical declassified records on issues including U.S. national security, foreign policy, diplomatic and military history, intelligence policy, and more.  Updated frequently, the Electronic Briefing Books represent just a small sample of the documents in our published and unpublished collections.

Archive publications also include 20 microfiche collections, 12 of which are now available on the World Wide Web as part of the Digital National Security Archive subscription, and more than 20 books written by Archive staff and fellows.

Recent Headlines

May 12 , 2004
Prisoner Abuse: Patterns from the Past
Cold War U.S. Interrogation Manuals Counseled "Coercive Techniques"
May 6, 2004
Intelligence and Vietnam
The Top Secret 1969 State Department Study
April 19, 2004
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April 12, 2004
Update: The President's Daily Brief
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April 7, 2004
The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994
The Assassination of the Presidents and the Beginning of the "Apocalypse"


The 1956 Hungarian Revolution
A history in documents

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Shedding light on a major Cold War flashpoint 

"Solidarity's Coming Victory: Big or Too Big?"
Poland's revolution as seen from the U.S. embassy

U.S. Planning for War in Europe, 1963-64
Declassified U.S. documents complement recent release of Warsaw Pact war plans

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Did NATO Win the Cold War?

Latin America

The Blind Man and the Elephant
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His Diaries, E-Mail, and Memos on the Kerry Report, Contras and Drugs 

Ed Koch Threatened With Assassination in 1976
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Dear Mr. President: Lessons on Justice from Guatemala
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Nixon on Chile Intervention
White House tape acknowledges instructions to block Salvador Allende

The Dawn of Mexico's Dirty War
Lucio Cabañas and the Party of the Poor

Kissinger to Argentines on Dirty War: "The quicker you succeed the better"
Documents show Secretary of State gave green light to junta

Kennedy & Castro: The Secret History
Initiative with Castro aborted by assassination, declassified documents show

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Guatemala and the Search for Security

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The Search for Truth
The declassified record on human rights abuses in Peru

Nixon's Mexico Tapes
Secret recordings from the Nixon White House on Luis Echeverría and much much more

Before Democracy
Memories of Mexican elections

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Mexico's attack on its student movement, June 10, 1971

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Nixon, Mexico and the perils of unilateralism

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Double Dealing
Mexico's foreign policy toward Cuba

Argentine Junta Security Forces Killed Disappeared Activists, Mothers and Nuns

Argentine Military Believed U.S. Gave Go-ahead for Dirty War
New State Department documents show conflict between Washington and US Embassy in Buenos Aires over signals to the military dictatorship at height of repression in 1976

State Department Opens Files on Argentina's Dirty War
New Documents Describe Key Death Squad Under Former Army Chief Galtieri

"Montesinos: Blind Ambition"
The Peruvian Townsend Commission report and declassified U.S. documentation

Nixon: "Brazil helped rig the Uruguayan elections," 1971
Documents reveal U.S. efforts to influence Uruguayan presidential election

Freedom of Information in Mexico
Government proposal follows public pressure for transparency

War in Colombia
Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in U.S.-Colombia Policy, 1988-2002

Conflicting Missions
Secret Cuban documents on history of Africa involvement

Peru in "The Eye of the Storm"
Declassified U.S. documentation on human rights abuses and political violence

Shoot-Down in Peru
The secret U.S. debate over intelligence sharing in Peru and Colombia

Public Diplomacy and Covert Propaganda
The declassified record of Ambassador Otto Juan Reich

"Fujimori's Rasputin"
The declassified files on Peru's former Intelligence Chief, Vladimiro Montesinos

New Information on the Murders of U.S. Citizens Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi by the Chilean Military
Newly-declassified documents from CIA, FBI and State Department

The Guatemalan Military: What the U.S. Files Reveal
Archive releases comprehensive report and database on Guatemalan security forces

Newly released portions of Taylor Commission report

The CIA in Latin America
Declassified documents on a "distinguished" career

Guatemala: Colonel Byron Lima Estrada
Declassified documents on former intelligence chief and alleged mastermind behind the Gerardi murder

Guatemalan "Death Squad Dossier"
Army log reveals the fate of scores of Guatemalan citizens "disappeared" during the mid-1980s

Béisbol Diplomacy with Cuba

U.S. Policy in Guatemala, 1963-1993

Mexico: The Tlatelolco Massacre
Declassified U.S. documents on the events of 1968

Chile and the United States
Declassified documents related to the military coup of September 11, 1973

The Death of Che Guevara: Declassified

CIA and Assassinations
The Guatemala 1954 Documents

The Contras, Cocaine, and Covert Operations

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"It Is Certain There Will be Many Firestorms"
New evidence on the origins of overkill

The Making of the Limited Test Ban Treaty

North Korea and Nuclear Weapons
The declassified U.S. record

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An online companion piece to an article appearing in the January/February 2003 issue of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 60

First Strike Options and the Berlin Crisis, 1961
New documents from the Kennedy Administration

Eisenhower and Nuclear Predelegation
First declassification of Eisenhower's instructions predelegating use of nuclear weapons

Launch on Warning
The development of U.S. capabilities, 1959-1979

The United States and the Chinese Nuclear Program, 1960-1964
Companion documents to Winter 2000/2001 edition of International Security

U.S. Planning for War in Europe, 1963-64
Declassified U.S. documents complement recent release of Warsaw Pact war plans

The Chinese Nuclear Weapons Program
Problems of intelligence collection and analysis, 1964-1972

U.S. Nuclear Weapons Deployments in Chichi Jima and Iwo Jima

United States Secretly Deployed Nuclear Bombs In 27 Countries and Territories During the Cold War

New Archival Evidence on Taiwanese "Nuclear Intentions", 1966-1976

U.S. Nuclear Weapons and Okinawa

Israel and the Bomb

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The U.S. Atomic Energy Detection System (AEDS)

India and Pakistan -- On the Nuclear Threshold

China and East Asia

Intelligence and Vietnam
The Top Secret 1969 State Department Study

China, Pakistan, and the Bomb
The Declassified File on U.S. Policy, 1977-1997

Nixon's Trip to China
Now completely declassified, including Kissinger intelligence briefing and assurances on Taiwan

JFK and the Diem Coup
JFK tape reveals high-level Vietnam coup plotting in 1963

North Korea and Nuclear Weapons
The declassified U.S. record

Negotiating U.S.-Chinese Rapprochement
New American and Chinese documention leading up to Nixon's 1972 trip

Henry Kissinger's Secret Trip to China
The Beijing-Washington Back-Channel, September 1970-July 1971

East Timor Revisited
Ford, Kissinger and the Indonesian invasion, 1975-76

The Sino-Soviet Border Conflict, 1969
U.S. reactions and diplomatic maneuvers

The U.S. "Tiananmen Papers"
New documents reveal U.S. perceptions of Chinese political crisis

Reconnaissance Flights and Sino-American Relations
Policy developments and a Hainan Island incident, 1969-1970

The United States and the Chinese Nuclear Program, 1960-1964
Companion documents to Winter 2000/2001 edition of International Security

Tiananmen Square 1989
The declassified history

Record of Richard Nixon-Zhou Enlai Talks, February 1972

China and the United States
From hostility to engagement

The United States, China, and the Bomb

U.S. Intelligence Community

Prisoner Abuse: Patterns from the Past
Cold War U.S. Interrogation Manuals Counseled "Coercive Techniques"

Eyes on Saddam
U.S. overhead imagery of Iraq

The U-2, OXCART, and the SR-71
U.S. aerial espionage in the Cold War and beyond

Science, Technology and the CIA
From satellites to psychics

The Pentagon's Spies
Documents detail histories of once secret spy units

Reconnaissance Flights and Sino-American Relations
Policy Developments and a Hainan Island Incident, 1969-1970

The NRO Declassified
The creation and evolution of America's secretive spy satellite agency

The National Security Agency Declassified
Updated Newly declassified directive governs interception of communications involving "U.S. persons"

U.S. Satellite Imagery, 1960-1999

Middle East and South Asia

The Saddam Hussein Sourcebook
Declassified secrets from the U.S.-Iraq relationship

The October War and U.S. Policy
Kissinger gave green light for Israeli offensive violating 1973 cease-fire

Eyes on Saddam
U.S. overhead imagery of Iraq

Shaking Hands with Saddam Hussein
The U.S. tilts toward Iraq, 1980-1984

Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction

The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971

U.S. Propaganda in the Middle East
The early Cold War version

Operation Desert Storm: Ten Years After
Documents shed light on role of intelligence, stealth technology and space systems in the Gulf War

The Secret CIA History of the Iran Coup, 1953

20 Years after the Hostages
Declassified documents on Iran and the United States

The September 11th Sourcebooks

Volume I - Terrorism and U.S. Policy

Volume II - Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War

The Nixon administration's decision to end U.S. biological warfare programs

Volume IV - The Once and Future King?
From the secret files on King Zahir's reign in Afghanistan, 1970-1973

Volume V - Anthrax at Sverdlovsk, 1979
U.S. intelligence on the deadliest modern outbreak

Volume VI - The Hunt for Bin Laden
Background on the role of Special Forces in U.S. military strategy

Volume VII - The Taliban File

Taliban File Update: U.S. Pressed Taliban to Expel Usama bin Laden Over 30 Times
Only three approaches in first year of Bush administration

The Taliban File Part III
Pakistan Provided Millions of Dollars, Arms, and "Buses Full of Adolescent Mujahid" to the Taliban in the 1990's

Humanitarian Interventions

The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994
The Assassination of the Presidents and the Beginning of the "Apocalypse"

The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994
Information, Intelligence and the U.S. Response

The US and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994
Evidence of inaction

Lessons Learned from U.S. Humanitarian Interventions Abroad Lessons learned from Kosovo, Sudan, Afghanistan, Hurricane Mitch and other operations

Government Secrecy

The President's Daily Brief
The Declassified August 6, 2001 PDB and More

Justice Delayed is Justice Denied
The ten oldest pending FOIA requests in the federal government

The Freedom of Information Act on Its 37th Birthday
Archive features 20 news stories based on FOIA

Dubious Secrets
Declassified documents show excessive secrecy, arbitrary and subjective classification decisions

The Ashcroft Memo
"Drastic" change or "more thunder than lightning"?

Trading Democracy?
Documents from NAFTA's secret tribunals

CIA Stalling State Department Histories
Archive Posts One of the Two Disputed Volumes on Web
State historians conclude U.S. passed names of communists to Indonesian Army, which killed at least 105,000 in 1965-66

The Pentagon Papers
Secrets, lies and audiotapes

The Death Squad Protection Act
Senate measure would restrict public access to crucial human rights information

V. I. Lenin - 1916
Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism
A popular outline
Written: January-June, 1916
Published: First published in mid-1917 in pamphlet form, Petrograd. Published according to the manuscript and verified with the text of the pamphlet.
Source: Lenin’s Selected Works, Progress Publishers, 1963, Moscow, Volume 1, pp. 667–766.
Transcription\Markup: Tim Delaney & Kevin Goins (2008)
Public Domain: Lenin Internet Archive 2005. You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.

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Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas
Creemos en la paz y en la justica
..."Creo en un mundo cuyas instituciones políticas, económicas y sociales fomenten la solidaridad,  promuevan la equidad, maximicen la participación, ...”...
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
"...creemos que la abrumadora mayoría de la población mundial se opone fieramente a las politicas neoconservadoras,   las cuales son una negación de los principios básicos...".

Hegemonía estadounidense
R.Rojas: El desarrollo del dominio imperialista en Chile (1971)
Abril 2003
RECESION Y GUERRA Federico García Morales
La Guerra y el Autonomismo Ruth Wagner y Facundo Aguirre
Septiembre negro e Irak: Dios ha sido enviado al exilio Nelson González Leal
Imágenes y Simulacros de una Guerra Red Alvaro Cuadra
La Guerra de Bush es contra Europa... Paul Harris
Las Consecuencias de las Acciones Militares Ofensivas en Irak para la Economía Chilena Francisco Lira
Artículos recomendados del mes
El "Proyecto para el Nuevo Siglo Estadounidense", la "Doctrina Bush" y la guerra contra Irak
Apoye y participe en el
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular
Róbinson Rojas
(I. Ramonet, 2003)
La estrategia imperialista estadounidense y su momento de verdad
(J. D. Cockcroft, 2003)
S. García Baste (1993)
América Latina y Estados Unidos. Autonomía y Hegemonía
El imperialismo del siglo XXI
(C. Katz , junio 2002)
Estados Unidos en Brasil
Róbinson Rojas
Prensa Latinoamericana S.A., 1965


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas
Je suis pour la paix et la justice
"Je suis pour un monde dont les institutions politiques, économiques et sociales nourrissent la solidarité, promeuvent l'équité, maximisent la participation, célèbrent la diversité et encouragent la démocratie totale. Je suis pour la paix et la justice et, mieux, je m'engage à travailler pour la paix et la justice.”
tout le texte ici
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire
"Nous ... pensons que la vaste majorité de la population mondiale est maintenant sévèrement opposée aux politiques néo-conservatrices, qui se moquent totalement des principes fondamentaux que sont la liberté et la démocratie. Nous proposons donc un cadre d’action pour l’établissement d’une véritable liberté et d’une véritable démocratie..."...
lire la declaration ici

Hegemonie americaine
Le Monde Diplomatique:
l'Empire contre l'Irak
Néo impérialisme

Illégal Agression
Réseau Voltaire:
Choquer pour se faire respeter. L'expérimentation de bombes nucléaires sur les irakienes
Ni Croisade, ni Djihad. Démasquons les vraies coupables!
Il importe que M. Bush réponde au questions suscitees par les événements du 11 septembre
Qui a commandité les attentats du 11 septembre?
Lettre de citoyens américaines à leurs amies en Europe
Les sept erreurs de l'administration Bush
Le sénateur Byrd dresse le balance catastrophique de l'administration Bush
Donald Rumsfeld, de la guerre froide à la guerre au terrorisme
Le Monde Diplomatique:
Où va l'Empire américain?
par Eric Hobsbawm. - juin 2003

        par Ignacio Ramonet. - mai 2003

Du « destin manifeste » des Etats-Unis
        par Maurice Lemoine. - mai 2003

Massacre aux Philippines
        par Maurice Lemoine. - mai 2003

Tentation impériale
        par Philip S. Golub. - septembre 2002

L'évangile néocolonial de M. Blair
par Philip S. Golub. - septembre 2002

Du Tonkin à Alger, des « violences de détail »
par Alain Ruscio. - juin 2001

Citations (1)
juin 2001

Citations (2)
juin 2001

Quand Tocqueville légitimait les boucheries
par Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison. - juin 2001

L'Afrique des expatriés français

L'Exception culturelle

Voir aussi...
Culture et impérialisme
un livre d'Edward W. Said

Sur la toile
Porto Alegre 2002. - En complément du site officiel du Forum social mondial, ce, site d'animation mis en place par l'édition brésilienne du Monde diplomatique, compile des articles de presse pour analyser le mouvement de lutte contre la mondialisation libérale et réfléchir sur des propositions d'alternatives concrètes.

Projet pour le Nouveau Siècle Américaine